The First Tower, or Rocca, or Guaita, is the largest and oldest of the three fortresses that dominate the city of San Marino from above.
Its central nucleus, which was a guard post and refuge for the first inhabitants of Monte Titano, dates back to the 11th century and is therefore one of the oldest fortresses in Italy.

It is characterized by the presence of two defensive walls.
The external one, crowned with battlements and reinforced at the corners by corner towers which were lowered during the 16th century, was part of the first ring of walls (Girone della Guaita) built to defend the town.

The internal city wall, the oldest, is equipped with an elevated entrance and contains within it the bell tower, the quarters of the garrisons subsequently transformed into prisons and the Pen Tower, the ancient watchtower which was rebuilt in the second half of the 15th century.

In its structure it still bears traces of the subsequent renovations to which the defensive complex was subjected.
A dagger carved on one of the ashlars near the bell tower and an inscription in Gothic characters on the eastern tower have been recognized as symbols left by the Comacine workers who carried out the first restoration in the 13th century.
The dates 1481 and 1475 engraved respectively on the arch of the entrance door and on the architrave of a slit recall the important renovations undergone in the last decades of the 15th century.

However, the numerous renovations to which the defensive complex was subjected, especially in the 15th and 16th centuries, did not substantially alter its appearance, which remains austere and unadorned.
The last restoration, carried out around 1930, allowed it to be opened to visitors.

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First Tower or Rocca or Guaita